|Latin name||Pterapogon kauderni - Koumans, 1933|
|Local name||Banggai cardinal fish|
|Family||Apogonidae - Pterapogon|
|Max length||10 cm (3,9")|
|Minimum volume||150 cm (40 gal)|
|Suitable for aquarium||Suitable for most aquarium|
|Reef safe||Always reef safe|
|Aggressiveness||Docile but might be aggressive towards similar species|
Zooplankton (Cyclops, pods...)
Small crustaceans (Krill, mysis, artemia...)
Larger crustaceans (Shrimp, crabs...)
This species is endangered.
This species can be a threat towards small crustaceans, e.g. small shrimp.
The male incubates the eggs in its mouth.
This species can sometimes be found hiding between anemones or similar.
This species, on occasion, likes to hide in the spines of Diadema sea urchins.
This species can live with many of its own kind, when provided with enough space.
This species is very shy and docile, so one should be careful when keeping it with more aggressive fish.
This species can be bred in captivity, one can therefore consider asking your local fish store for a captive bred specimen.
Cardinalfish come in many different shapes and colours, generally they are well suited for aquaria.
Cardinalfish have a large mouth and a big appetite, take this into account with feeding the other fish. These fish typically live off of Artemia, Mysis and krill. In the aquarium they will eat anything they can.
They will sometimes eat small shrimps and fish, so do be aware of this, but it is not normally a problem.
It is possible to keep several species together, if space allows. Some species will form small shoals. They are normally peaceful towards other fish, but will sometimes fight among themselves if there isn't sufficient space or food.
Many species are nocturnal and will therefore often seek a hiding place during the day. This can be between stones, SPS corals and, in some cases, in an anemone and between spines of Sea urchins.
Cardinalfish are a good choice if ones wishes to attempt to start a breeding tank.
|Distribution||Western Pacific: Apparently restricted to Banggai Islands, Indonesia. Also found in several small islands off nearby eastern Taliabu Island and Luwuk vicinity (Ref. 90102). Threatened by extinction due to collection for the aquarium trade (Ref. 27438, 35|
|English common names||
Frank C. Marini. My notes and observations on Raising and Breeding the Banggai Cardinalfish - Microcosm Aquarium Explorer - (Engelsk)
Scott W. Michael. 2001. Basslets, Dottybacks & Hawkfishes: v. 2 (Reef Fishes) - TFH Publications / Microcosm Ltd. - (English)
Bob Fenner. Cardinalfishes, Family Apogonidae, Pt. 1, Pt. 2 - Wet Web Media - (English)
"Minimum volume" indicates the size of the tank needed to house this species under optimal conditions.
This is based on a medium size animal, which you want to keep for several years.
It might be possible to keep smaller specimens for a limited period in a smaller tank. A larger tank might be needed for fully-grown specimens.
"Hardiness" indicates how resistant this species is to disease and how well i tolerates bad conditions in general.
Some species doesn't handle transportation very well, but that doesn't mean that the species isn't hardy under the right conditions.
In this case, a "normal" aquarium is a reef aquarium with mixed corals or a fish only aquarium with an approximately salinity of 1.026 (sg) and a temperature close to 26°C.
Species requiring more than a 4000-liter tank are considered not suitable for home aquarium.
Special aquariums may cover tanks with low salinity, sub-tropical temperature, deep sand bed, sea grass etc.
Always reef safe: No sources indicate that this species will harm corals or other invertebrates.
Often reef safe: Only a few aquarists has reported problems keeping this species with corals and other invertebrates.
Reef safe with caution: This species may be a threat to some types of invertebrates.
Reef safe with luck: Most specimens will harm corals and/or other invertebrates, but you might be lucky.
Not reef safe: This species is a threat to most corals and/or other invertebrates.